Only one contemporary concerning Arthur exists that we are able  examine today. Concerning the Ruin of Britain or De Excido Britanniae written by the Northern British monk, St. Gildas, in the mid-6th century. Unfortunately, Gildas was not a historian and his first intent was to lament the loss of the Roman way of life and reproaching the British leaders (Constantine, Aurelius Caninus, Vortepor, Cuneglasus, and Maglocunus) who had usurped Imperial power and degraded Christian values.   It contains no reference to Arthur, king  or otherwise, but does make reference to a character called "The Bear".  The Celtic meaning of the  word is ART.  He praises Ambrosius Aurelianus and mentions the Siege of Mount Badon, though not the name of the victor.  Gildas' writings are dated  prior to 549 (the death of Maglocunus, one of his usurpers).  The passage telling of Badon places the siege forty-four years before this, thus placing Arthur around
the turn of the 6th century.

The Welsh Easter Annals or Annales Cambiae, written over the years AD 447 to 957 (though early entries were likely penned written some time after the events occurred), are the earliest sources to mention Arthur by name.  Used to calculate the moving dates of Easter, the document, as well, records historical events alongside many of its yearly entries. Two of these relate of Arthur. AD 516 and mentions refers The Battle of Badon, in which "Arthur carried the Cross of Our Lord Jesus Christ for three days and three nights on his shoulders and the Britons were the victors".


AD 537 records
The Strife of Camlann in which Arthur and Medraut perished. All  names mentioned in this, otherwise reliable, annals appear to have been real historical people, so there should be no reason to doubt that Arthur and Mordred were not likewise.  It has been suggested Arthur's appearance in the Badon entry may have been an interpolation, but criticisms of the length of the battle seemed unfounded, for Gildas, more correctly, calls the battle a siege. The statement that Arthur carried "the cross of Our Lord on his shoulders" may refer to an amulet containing a chip of the true cross. More likely it is a translation error of Welsh "shoulder" for "shield", indicating the cross was merely an armorial bearing.

Arthur does warrant a passing comment in the early 7th Century poem by Aneirin, Y Gododdin.  He was the famous bard from the Royal House of the North Pennines. The work praises the efforts of the Northern British armies, headed by those of Din-Eityn and Gododdin, at the Battle of Catraeth around AD 600 and one warrior is described as having "glutted black ravens on the ramparts of the fort, although he was no Arthur".  It has been argued that this shows the early spread of Arthur's fame. Unfortunately, considering the northern overtones, this may refer to the Arthur's Northern contemporary, King Arthwys of the Pennines.

 

The last major Arthurian reference occurs in the 8th Century  History of the Britons written by a Welsh historian Nennius, a monk from Bangor Fawr (Gwynedd).  Nennius' numerous chronicles compiled the history of the British tribes, with genealogies and a list of the 28 Towns of Britian. The work is noted for its chapter concerning the Campaigns of Arthur, telling of his Twelve Battles. These latter may be a Latin summary of an ancient Welsh battle list, possibly pre-dating the unmentioned Battle of Camlann.  Though each battle is named, the enemy is not specific and the places are difficult to pinpoint. Nennius states all the baBritainttles were fought by Arthur, implying the previously mentioned Kentish Saxons as the foes.

 

   

 


The centuries-long tussle for prestige between England and Scotland may be about to end in victory for the clans, with new archaeological evidence suggesting that the first national leader of the British Isles was a Scot.

The remains of a mysterious figure found in an Iron Age chariot burial under the A1M motorway was of "exceptional significance" according to academics, who have also unearthed the leftovers of one of Britain's biggest feasts at his funeral site in Yorkshire. Decorated with jewellery and finely wrought harness and chariot gear, the 2,400-year-old grave is thought to have been a rallying-point for Britain's tribes 500 years later when the Romans moved north. Some 300 young cattle from all over the country were brought to Ferrybridge to feed an assembly running into thousands not far from where a Little Chef now stands. "We have much more to find out, but this is an excavation full of surprises," said Angela Boyle of Oxford Archaeology, whose specialists rescued the remains from the Ј245m upgrading of the junction between the A1M and the trans-Pennine M62.

The slender man, who was in his 30s or 40s, 5ft 9in tall with excellent teeth, was initially thought to be a local warrior, and the cattle remains traces of a ceremony to mark his burial. "But high strontium in his bones shows that he was not from Yorkshire, but almost certainly from the Scottish highlands," said Ms Boyle. "And the cattle remains date from the first century AD when the Romans were establishing themselves here.

This goes back to a long held believe by Scots that Avalon - the
Isle of Apples was actually Scotland, maybe an Isle in the
Hebrides such as Skye.  The old name of Scotland was
Alba.  Alba is pronounced wth a V sound, not a B sound
so it would be Alva.  Alva+lon(land).  Alva means Apples.

 

Recommended Grail Book

order from
Amazon.com
and
Barnes and Noble

visit
Cynthia Breeding's Website

www.cynthiabreeding.com

 

 

        

this set is not linkware
and may not be used without
written permission